Once installed, Chrome to Phone puts an icon in your Chrome browser that teleports information from your browser to your phone. Example, you see a web page you want to take with you on your phone, click Chrome to Phone and it appears in your phone's browser instantly. So let's expand on the types of "information" that you might want to send to your phone. Maps let you get directions as you head out the door. When you highlight and send Phone numbers, they appear in your phone's dialer. Basic web sites suddenly open on your phone. Even if you just highlight text in a browser window and click the Chrome to Phone icon, it gets sent to the clipboard on your phone, then you can paste it into an app or an email.
Here's a quick video.